Rwanda: Bibliography


-Abtan, Benjamin, et al, eds. Rwanda: Pour un dialogue des memoires. Paris: Albin Michel and Union des Etudiants Juifs de France, 2007.


-Ba, Cheik Moctar. “La problématique de la ‘fin ultime’ dans l’éthique bantu-rwandaise.” Revue Africaine 2 (Mai 2007): 9-15.

-Bangamwabo, François-Xavier. “L’Expression de l’organisation de l’espace Rwandais: les deictiques locatifs.” In Le Kinyarwanda: Etudes de morpho-syntaxe. Paris: Société pour l’Information Grammaticale, edited by Yves Cadio, 141-50. Louvain: Diffusion Peeters, 1985.

-Bigirumwami, Aloys. Imigani “timangiro” y’u RwandaLes Contes moraux du Rwanda. Translated by Bernardin Muzungu. Butare: Editions de l’Université nationale du Rwanda, 1987.

—. Umuntu (L’homme). Vol. I: Jyejyejyewe-Jyejyenyine (Une anthropologie rwandaise traditionnelle); Vol. II: Imibereho y’umuntu (La vie morale traditionnelle). Diocèse de Nyundo: Manuscript, 1983.

-Biruka, Innocent. Sagesse rwandaise et culture de la paix. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2010.

-Bizimana, Simon and Pierre Crepeau, eds. Proverbes du Rwanda. Tervuren: Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, 1979.

-Bujo, Bénézet and Juvénal Ilunga Muya, eds. African Theology in the 21st Century: The Contribution of the Pioneers. Translated by Silvano Borruso. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2003.


-Clark, Phil and Zachary D. Kaufman, eds. After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond. London: C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd, 2009.

-Coqio, Catherine. Rwanda: Le Réel et les récits. Paris: Belin, 2004.

-Crepeau, Pierre. Parole et Sagesse: Valeurs sociales dans les proverbs du Rwanda. Tervuren: Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, 1985.

-Chrétien, Jean-Pierre. “Les Bantous, de la philologie Allemande à l’authenticité Africaine: Un mythe racial contemporain.” Vingtième Siècle 8-1 (1985): 43-66.


-Daley, Patricia. “Challenges to Peace: Conflict Resolution in the Great Lake Region of Africa.” Third World Quarterly 27-2 (2006): 309-19.

-de Lame, Danielle. A Hill Among a Thousand: Transformations and Ruptures in Rural Rwanda. Translated by Helen Arnold. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press / Tervuren: Musée Royale de l’Afrique centrale, 2005.

—. “Changing Rwandan Vision of Women and Land, in the Heart of the House at the Outskirts of the World.” Afrika Focus 15-1-2 (1999): 3-12.

—. “Le Genocide Rwandais et le vaste monde, les liens du sang.” In Annuaire de la region Grands Lacs, 1996-1997, edited by Stefaan Maryse and Filip Reyntjens, 157-17. Paris: Harmattan, 1997.

—. “Mighty Secrets, Public Commensality, and the Crisis of Transparency: Rwanda through the Looking Glass.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 38-2 (2004): 279-317.

—. “On Behalf of Ordinary People: Bridging the Gap between High Politics and Simple Tragedies.” African Studies Review 48-3 (December 12005): 133-41.

-de La Pradelle, Géraud. Imprescriptible: L’implication française dans le genocide tutsi portée devant les tribunaux. Paris: Les Arènes, 2005.

-Diagne, Souleymane Bachir. “Beyond the Hyphen-Syndrom: Tasks for an African Philosopher.” In Polylog: Forum for Intercultural Philosophy 4 (2003) (6 February 2009).

—. “Revisiter ‘La Philosophie Bantoue’: L’idée d’une grammaire philosophique.” Politique Africaine 77 (March 2000): 44-53.

-Diaw, Aminata. “Hountondji: Le sens d’un combat.” Ethiopiques 76 (1st Semester 2006) (November 2009).

-Digneffe, Françoise and Salomé Van Billoen. Les juridictions Gacaca au Rwanda: Une analyse de la complexité des representations. Brussels:  Emile Bruylant, 2008.

-Diop, Boubacar Boris. Murambi, the Book of Bones. Translated by Fiona McLaughlin. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

-Dufays, Felix and Vincent de Moor. Les Enchainés au Kinyaga. Brussels: Librarie de la Grand’Place, 1938.


-Eboussi Boulaga, Fabien. La Crise du Muntu. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1977.

-Eltringham, Nigel. Accounting for Horror: Post-Genocide Debates in Rwanda. London: Pluto Press, 2004.

—. “‘Invaders who have stolen the country’: The Hamitic Hypothesis, Race and the Rwandan Genocide.” Social Identities 12-4 (July 2006): 425-446.

-Elungu P.E.A. Eveil philosophique africain. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1984.

-Evans, Gareth. The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All. Washington: The Brookings Institution Press, 2008.

-Eze, Emmanuel Chukwudi. Achieving Our Humanity: The Idea of the Post-Racial Future. New York: Routledge, 2001.


-Fasiku, Gbenga. “African Philosophy and the Method of Ordinary Language Philosophy.” The Journal of Pan African Studies 2-3 (March 2008): 100-116.

-Francis, David J., ed. Peace and Conflict in Africa. London: Zed Books, 2008.

-Fuji, Lee Ann. Killing Neighbors: Webs of Violence in Rwanda. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.


-Gasarabwe, Edouard. Le Geste Rwanda. Paris: Union Générale d’Éditions, Collection 10/18, 1978.

—. “Meaningful Gestures.” The UNESCO Courier 46-9 (1993): 31-33.

-Gatore, Gilbert. Le Passé devant soi. Paris: Phébus, 2008.

-Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. London: Picador, 2000.


-Hallen, Barry. “Does it Matter Whether Linguistic Philosophy Intersects Ethnophilosophy?” American Philosophical Association Newsletter 96-1 (Fall 1996): 136-140.

—. “‘Ethnophilosophy’ Redefined?” Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya 2-1 (June 2010): 79-85.

-Hamme-Hategekimana, Kerstin. In Rwanda, Tears Do Not Only Run Inside - Contextualising the Discourse on War Trauma, Resilience and Reconciliation. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2009.

-Harries, Lyndon. “La Philosophie bantu-rwandaise de l’être by l’Abbé Alexis Kagame.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 27-3 (July 1957): 305-6.

-Hatzfeld, Jean. A Time for Machetes: The Rwandan Genocide: The Killers Speak. Translated by Linda Coverdale. London: Serpent’s Tail, 2005.

-Hebga, Meinrad P. Afrique de la raison, Afrique de la foi. Paris: Karthala, 1995.

-Hountondji, Paulin. African Philosophy, Myth and Reality. Translated by Henry Evans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

—. “Ethnophilosophie: Le mot et la chose.” Exchoresis, Revue Africaine de Philosophie 7 (November 2008): 1-9.


-Janz, Bruce B. Philosophy in an African Place (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2010).

-Janzen, John M. “Historical Consciousness and a ‘Prise de Conscience’ in Genocidal Rwanda.” Journal of African Cultural Studies 13-1 (June 2000): 153-68.

-Jefremovas, Villia. “Loose Women, Virtuous Wives, and Timid Virgins: Gender and the Control of Resources in Rwanda.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 25-3 (1991): 378-95.


-Kagabo, Liboire. “Alexis Kagame: Life and Thought.” In A Companion to African Philosophy, edited by Kwasi Wiredu, 231-42. London: Blackwell, 2004.

-Kamanzi, Thomas and André Coupez, eds. Dictionaire Rwandan-Rwanda et Rwanda-Français. Butare: Institut de Recherche Scientifique et Technologique, 2005.

-Kahan, Claudine. “La Honte du témoin.” In Parler des camps, penser les genocides, edited by Catherine Coquio, 493-513. Paris: Albin Michel, 1999.

-Karegeye, Jean-Pierre and Jacques Lemaire, eds. Rwanda: Récits du genocide, traversée de la mémoire. Brussels: Espaces de Libertés, 2009.

-Kimenyi, Alexandre. Kinyarwanda and Kirundi names: a Semio-Linguistic Analysis of Bantu Onomastics. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 1989.


-Malkki, Liisa H. Purity and Exile: Violence, Memory and National Cosmology Among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

-Mall, Ram Adhar. Intercultural Philosophy. London: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

-Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism and the Genocide in Rwanda. London: James Currey, 2001.

-Martinon, Jean-Paul. “Bearers and Proper Names.” In The Renaming Machine, edited by Suzana Milevska, 60-71. Slovenia: Parasite Publications, 2010.

-Masolo, D. A. African Philosophy in Search of Identity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

—. “Alexis Kagame and African socio-linguistics.” Contemporary Philosophy: A New Survey 5. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987, 181-205.

—. “Philosophy and Indigenous Knowledge: An African Perspective.” Africa Today 50-2 (Fall/Winter 2003): 21-38.

-Mazama, Ama. The Afrocentric Paradigm. Trenton: Africa World Press, 2003.

-Mbonimana, Gamaliel. “Sources des valeures et de l’autorité dans le Rwanda d’aujourd’hui.” In Shared Values and Promoting a Culture of Peace in Rwanda. Paris: UNESCO and Kigali: Government of Rwanda, 1998, 33-40.

-Mbiti, John S. African Religions and Philosophy. Johannesburg: Heinemann International Literature & Textbooks, 1990.

-Melvern, Linda. Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. London: Verso, 2006.

-Miles, Williams F. S. “Hamites and Hebrews: Problems in ‘Judaizing’ the Rwandan Genocide.” Journal of Genocide Research 2-1 (2000): 107-115.

-Momoh, Campbell Shittu. “Temporal Proverbs in African Philosophy.” In Time and Development in the Thought of Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Souleymane Bachir Diagne and Heinz Kimmerle, 193-203. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998.

-Monénembo, Tierno. The Oldest Orphan. Translated by Monique Fleury Nagem. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.

-Mugiraneza, Assumpta, Georges Bensoussan, and Yves Ternon eds. “Rwanda, quinze ans après. Penser et écrire l’hisoire du génocide des Tutsi.” Revue d’histoire de la Shoah 190 (January/June 2009).

-Mujawayo, Esther and Souad Belhaddad. SurVivantes. Paris: Editions de l'Aube, 2004.

-Mukagasana, Yolande. La mort ne veut pas de moi. Paris: Robert Laffont, 1999.

-Mukasonga, Scholastique. Inyenzi ou les Cafards. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 2006.

-Munyaradzi, Felix-Murove, ed. African Ethics: An Anthology of Comparative and Applied Ethics. Scottsville: University of Kwazulu-Natal Press, 2009.

-Muzungu, Bernardin. “Les Mythes.” Dossier 5, “L’Historiographie Rwandaise” (2001) (24 February 2010).


-Nabudere, Dani W. “Ubuntu.” In Pieces of the Puzzle: Keywords on Reconciliation and Transitional Justice, edited by Charles Villa-Viciencio and Erik Doxtader, 10-6. Cape Town: Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, 2004.

-Newbury, David. Essays in Identity & Authority in Precolonial Congo and Rwanda. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009.

-Nkongori, Laurent and Thomas Kamanzi, eds. Proverbes du Rwanda. Tervuren: Commission de Linguistique Africaine, 1957.

-Nothomb, Dominique. Un Humanisme africain: Valeurs et pierres d’attente. Brussels: Lumen Vitae, 1965.

—. “Signification religieuse des récits et des rites de Lyangombe au Rwanda.” Cahiers des Religions Africaines 10-19 (January 1976): 19-36.

-Nsengimana, Innocent. “Recension du livre du Prof. Maniragaba Balibusta, ‘Une archéologie de la violence en Afrique des Grands Lacs’.” Divergences 13 (May 2008) (October 2009).


-Obanda, Simon. Re-creation de la philosophie africaine. Bern: Peter Lang, 2002.

-Ouattara, Bourahima. “Figures ethnologiques de la pensée de l’être.” Cahiers d’études africaines 157 (2000): 79-90.


-Pages, Albert. Un Royaume hamite au centre de l’Afrique. Bruxelles: Institut Royal colonial Belge, 1933.

-Paradelle, Muriel and Hélène Dumont. “L’Emprunt à la culture, un atout dans le jugement du crime de genocide: Étude de cas à partir des juridictions traditionelles gacaca saisies du genocide des Tutsis du Rwanda.” Criminology 39-2 (2006): 97-135.

-Pham, Phuong N. and Harvey M. Weinstein, and Timothy Longman. “Trauma and PTSD Symptoms in Rwanda. Implications for Attitudes Toward Justice and Reconciliation.” JAMA 292-5 (2004): 602-612.

-Praeg, Leonhard. “The Aporia of Collective Violence.” Law Critique 19 (2008): 193-223.

-Prunier, Gérard. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. London: C. Hurst & Co., 2005.

-Purdeková, Andrea. “Repatriation and Reconciliation in Divided Societies: The Case of Rwanda’s ‘Ingando’.” RSC Working Paper 43, Oxford: Refugee Studies Centre (2008) (20 September 2010).


-Rabayiza, Fulgence. Guérir le Rwanda de la violence. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1998.

-Ramose, Mogobe B. African Philosophy Through Ubuntu. Harare: Mond Books, 1999.

—. “African renaissance: A Northbound Gaze.” In Philosophy from Africa, edited by Pieter Hendrik Coetzee and A.P.J. Roux, 600-610. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

—. “Alexis Kagame on the Bantu Philosophy of Be-ing, Aristotle’s Categoriae, and De interpretatione.” In Re-Ethnicizing the Minds? Cultural Revival in Contemporary Thought, edited by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein and Jürgen Hengelbrock, 53-62. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006.

—. “An African Perspective on Justice and Race.” Polylog: Forum for Intercultural Philosophy 3 (2001) (3 February 2008).

-Reyntjens, Filip. “Le gacaca ou la justice du gazon au Rwanda.” Politique africaine 40 (1990): 31-41.

-Rogers, J. T. The Overwhelming. London: Faber, 2006.

-Rosoux, Valérie. “La gestion du passé au Rwanda: ambivalence et poids du silence.” Génèses 61 (December 2005): 28-46.

-Rurangwa, Révérien. Genocide: My Stolen Rwanda. Translated by Anna Brown. London: Reportage Press, 2009.

-Ruwa’ichi, Thaddeus. The Constitution of Muntu: An Inquiry into the Eastern Bantu’s Metaphysics of Person. Berne: Peter Lang, 1990.


-Small, Audrey. “The Duty of Memory: A Solidarity of Voices after the Rwandan Genocide.” Paragraph 30:1 (2007): 85-100.

-Smet A.J. “Une philosophie sans philosophes? A propos de La Philosophie bantu comparée d’Alexis Kagame.” Cahiers des Religions Africaines 10-19 (January 1976): 125-137.

—. Philosophie Africaine. I, II. Kinshasa: Presses Universitaires du Zaïre, 1975.

-Smith, Pierre. “L’Efficacité des interdits.” L’Homme 19-1 (1979): 5-47.

-Smith, Stephen. “Rwanda in Six Scenes.” London Review of Books 33-6 (17 March 2011): 3-8.

-Sandrart, Georges. Cours de droit coutumier au Rwanda, Part 1: La famille; la propriété mobilière. Astrida: mimeographic paper, 1951.


-Tadjo, Veronique. The Shadow of Imana: Travels in the Heart of Rwanda. Translated by Véronique Wakerley. Oxford: Heinemann, 2002.

-Taylor, Christopher C. “Condoms and Cosmology: The Fractal Person and Sexual Risk in Rwanda.” Social Science and Medicine 31-9 (1990): 1023-8.

—. “The Concept of Flow in Rwandan Popular Medicine.” Social Science and Medicine 27-12 (1988): 1343-48.

—. Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide. Oxford: Berg, 1999.

-Tshiamalenga Ntumba, Ignace-Marcel. “Philosopher en et à partir des langues et problématisations africaines: Les leçons de la révolution linguistique et pragmatique.” In Les Peuples Bantu: Migrations, expansion et identité culturelle: Actes du Colloque International, Libreville, Gabon: 1-6 April 1985, edited by Theophile Obenga, 512-9. Libreville: Editions du CICIBA, 1985.

-Thiel, Joseph Franz. and Albert Doutreloux, eds. Heil und Macht: Approches du sacré. Bonn: Verlag Des Anthropos Instituts, 1975.

-Thomas, Louis Vincent. “La Philosophie Bantou Comparée par Alexis Kagame.” Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 43 (1977): 266-7.

-Towa, Marcien. Essai sur la problematique philosophique dans l’afrique actuelle. Yaoundé: Editions Clé, 1979.


-Umutesi, Marie-Béatrice. Surviving the Slaughter: The Ordeal of a Rwandan Refugee in Zaire. Translated by Catherine Newbury. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004.


-Van Binsbergen, Wim. African and Anthropological Lessons: A Philosophy of Inter-Culturality. Berlin: Lit, 2003.

-Vidal, Claudine. “De la contradiction sauvage.” L’Homme 14-3-4 (July-December 1974): 5-58.

—. “Enquête sur l’histoire et sur l’au-delà, Rwanda, 1800-1970.” L’Homme 24-3-4 (July-December 1984): 61-82.

—. “La Commemoration du génocide au Rwanda: Violence symbolique, mémorisation forcée et histoire officielle.” Cahiers d’Études africaines 44-3 (2004): 575-592.

—. “Les anthropologues ne pensent pas tout seuls,” L’Homme 18 No. 3-4, (July-December 1978): 111-21.

—. Sociologie des passions: Rwanda, Côte d’Ivoire. Paris: Editions Karthala, 1991.

—. “La ‘solidarité africaine’: un mythe à revisiter.” Cahiers d’Études africaines 34-4 (1994): 687-91.

-Villa-Vicencio, Charles. Walk with Us and Listen: Political Reconciliation in Africa. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.


-Walker, Alice. Overcoming Speechlessness: A Poet Encounters the Horror in Rwanda, Eastern Congo, and Palestine/Israel. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2010.

-Williams, Paul. Memorial Museums: The Global Rush to Commemorate Atrocities. New York: Berg, 2007.

-Wimmer Franz M. “Is Intercultural Philosophy a New Branch or a New Orientation in Philosophy?” In Interculturality of Philosophy and Religion, edited by Gregory D’Souza, 45-57. Bangalore: National Biblical Catechetical and Liturgical Centre, 1996.

“Rwandan philosophers should contribute towards the articulation of new socio-economic and cultural models of development in order to rescue us from the fate of simply replicating exogenous models.” Maniragaba Balibusta.



A bibliography on the combined topics of “Rwanda” and philosophy.